What is Nitrate?

Nitrate is a polyatomic ion made of Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms. The chemical structure contains one Nitrogen atom and three Oxygen atoms and is represented by the molecular formula NO3-. The nitrate group can be described as a functional group in inorganic chemistry. The compound has a trigonal planar geometry. This tells us how the atoms within the compound is arranged in three-dimensional space. According to the structure of the Nitrate, Nitrogen is the centre and is bonded to three identical Oxygen atoms. However, at any given time, only one oxygen atom is doubly bonded to the Nitrogen centre, the other two Oxygen atoms are bonded through single bonds. But, as the three oxygen atoms are identical to each other, it is believed that the structure is in accordance with the resonance principle in chemistry. Therefore, it suggests that the double bond can migrate between any Oxygen atom and the Nitrogen centre. Also, Nitrogen has an oxidation number of +5 in Nitrates.

Nitrate ions have an overall charge of -1, however considering the charge distribution within the ion, the Nitrogen atom carries a charge of +1, and each Oxygen atom carries a charge of -(2/3), to result in an overall charge of -1. Generally, all nitrate salts are soluble in water. With water, the Nitrate ions form nitric acid, which is considered as a strong acid. Nitrate compounds are used for fertilizers in agriculture, for the production of explosives and gun powder, etc. With the Greentest Nitrate Tester, you will be able to test the Nitrates in your fruit, vegetable, meat and water. You can purchase a Greentest Nitrate tester from www.alvarita.co.za.

Only available from Alvarita.

What is Nitrite?

Nitrites is also a polyatomic ion containing N and O atoms, where Nitrogen has an oxidation number of +3. The Nitrite group contains one Nitrogen atom and two Oxygen atoms and is represented by the molecular formula, NO2-. The O-N-O bond angle is roughly around 120°. This gives us an idea how the atoms are arranged in three-dimensional space. Nitrite ions can be oxidized to form Nitrates since the oxidation number of Nitrogen in Nitrites is less than that of Nitrates.

Upon reacting with water, Nitrites form nitrous acid, which is considered to be a weak acid in inorganic chemistry. In the chemical structure of the Nitrite compound, one Oxygen atom is doubly bonded to the Nitrogen centre, and the other is singly bonded. However, as the resonance principle governs the structure relationship of the group, the double bond between the Oxygen atom and the Nitrogen atom is considered to be constantly migrating; hence, the two Oxygen atoms would have identical status. Nitrites are produced by nitrifying bacteria and is often used in the food industry for the curing of meat. It also has an important biochemical role being the vasodilator for nitric oxide.

With the Greentest Nitrate Tester, you will be able to test the Nitrates in your fruit, vegetable, meat and water. You can purchase a Greentest Nitrate tester from www.alvarita.co.za.

Only available from Alvarita.

 

Every great once in a while mainline medical advice reverses itself about something important – what was bad becomes good or what was good becomes bad. That happened with Vitamin D in recent years when stern warnings never to exceed 400IU a day gave way to recommendations that it is good for older people to take anywhere up to 4000IU per day. A reversal may now be taking place having to do with whether nitrates and nitrites lead to cancers and Alzheimer`s Disease and are therefore bad for you, or whether they have great cardiovascular effects and are therefore good for you. There is controversy about this, clashing and clanging of gears as contradictory health advice is commonly given.

The arguments against consumption of substantial amounts of nitrates and nitrites are both old and new and are fairly convincing:

• Nitrites are converted into nitrosamines under a number of conditions, and nitrosamines are known to be toxic or carcinogenic.

• Exposure to nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines is correlated with higher incidences of Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s disease and diabetes.

• Consumption of foods containing large amounts of nitrates or nitrites lead to higher incidences of several cancers.

• Shorter telomere lengths, biomarkers of aging,  are associated with consumption of processed meats containing nitrates/nitrites/nitrosamines, but not with consumption of unprocessed meats.